Art is dynamic. Art is adaptive. And regardless of where it originates, and with what rules, it is bound to transform and adapt to different cultures. The debate has always been to stick within the rules, be novel with the rules, or to break the rules entirely. But it is these debates, and how they are treated by active-passive artists and the critics alike, that makes art simply ART. It is what has kept it valuable and relevant in an age where the computer is determined to take over our lives and transform everything into a virtual non-reality.
Haiku is just one poetry form. It is perhaps the shortest poetry form, albeit with the longest set of rules. One Haijin (a Haiku poet), Jane Reichhold wrote in her book that one must learn all the rules, practice them, and break them. This is such a difficult thing to do, breaking them. Nevertheless, it is what one must do to remain relevant or to adapt the art form to a given culture. And Haiku is one poetry form that requires a lot of adaptation.
And this is exactly what Adjei Agyei-Baah did in his book Afriku - Haiku & Senryu from Ghana (2016). As its name suggests, it is a collection of haiku and senryu poems, but with a 'difference'. Adjei has translated each poem into his native Twi language. The Twi language has short syllables and so these translations did not take much away from the original. The question here is: Are the Twi versions the originals or the translations? This is a question Adjei will answer some day.
The collection opens with an adaptation of one of the most popular Haikus of all time, Basho's Frog by Matsuo Basho. There has been numerous adaptations of this Haiku, yet Adjei found a way to bring it home. He writes
old pond -
the living splash
of Basho's frog
And even for this, he managed to write a Twi version. At this stage, I am assuming the Twi versions to be translations.
sutae dadaa -
nkaedum a Basho
However, the importance of the collection does not lie in just one simple adaptation of a great work. There are several others that do exactly what Haiku should do: to live someone's captured moment. For instance who does not feel the hot breath, the tiredness, the sweat droplets, and the pain of this farmer?
the farmer digs
into his breath
Or the sole egret playing catch-up with the swarm in
season of migration
the lightning dash
of a late egret
Haikus are meant to show and not tell. They are like art pieces. The reader-viewer must make his own explanations, must live the artist's moment in his own personal way, must bring to the art his own interpretation. However, Haiku - the classical Haiku - do more. For instance, they must indicate the date or period within which the event occurred using seasonal markers (Kigo). In the 'drought' piece above, one can easily feel the harmattan and can geopin it to the northern part of Ghana where the harmattan is severe and the drudgery of farmers become palpable in their breaths. In fact, if one has a broader and deeper knowledge of the landscape of the country, one can easily say that this farmer is in the Bongo District of the Upper East where the land is rocky and the soil is laterite and extremely difficult to cultivate.
However, for Haiku writers in the tropics, the use of kigo has become the dry season of our arts. It makes writing difficult since the changes in the season is not dramatic. Adjei faced some of these problems and manoeuvered around it. For instance,
gust of wind...
the crow takes off
in a zigzag line
shows that we are in the rainy season but not in July, when it only drizzles. This could be the period just after the dry season, early March to April, where the rainfall is preceded by heavy winds and squalls.
But Adjei did not tie himself with the entire range of Haiku rules. There are times that he preferred the moment to the classic rules.
the absurdity of politics
served fresh on the airwaves
school memories -
all the farts concealed
by shifting chairs
could be argued to be non-Haiku. In fact, I am tempted to believe that these ones are the Senryu the title is referencing. But can one not relate to the issue in the piece? Adjei attempted to make his Haiku tell a story, the story of Africa. He managed to introduce old narratives into new formats. Take this piece
mother fakes supper
to put the kids to sleep
Anyone who knows the story told behind this will easily relate to this piece. Recently, I was explaining how we used to light up cooking fire to a late nineties colleague and it was as if I was an ancient being, but Adjei captures and packages it in a way that makes my story verbose
the wood shavings that light up
There are some really beautiful gems in this collection including the one-liner
a dragonfly pausing the wind
a dragonfly dips
I like the fact that Adjei broke the rules, sometimes. There are many who consider Haiku to be just 5-7-5 syllable poem or Short-Long-Short. If Haiku were just these then it is not an art form. It is this and more. Just as you cannot write a 15-line poem and call it a sonnet but can write a sonnet of straight 14 lines or of a sestet and octet, so too can you play within the rules, break them entirely, and still keep the Haiku identity. In several of the pieces, Adjei did this. In the ones he did not, where he sought to carry a story through, or lighten up things, the Senryu in the title is there for cover.
Adjei's collection is important for several reasons. One, it brings home an art form that is very difficult to tame. It encourages several individuals to consider alternative forms of poetry. The bold attempt at translating into Twi is important for reasons beyond just Haiku. Like many other things, the African is comfortable writing in English or French than his native language. Yet, he thinks first in his native language even when speaking these languages. Writing in the native language then has the capability to free the writer. And the more writers we have doing this, the better it will be for our writing.
For those interested in writing and reading Haiku, please do include this in your material.